Preventive care and oral hygiene: Gum Disease

What is gum disease?

This is a type of dental condition that many people may not even be aware of because the initial symptoms are often quite innocuous; gum disease is a form of infection that typically develops due to poor oral hygiene, although it can sometimes occur when a certain type of bacteria comes into contact with the soft tissue in the mouth.

Most of the time, gum disease will be caused by lack of proper brushing and flossing, which allows plaque to build up along the gum line; this irritates the gum tissue and will lead to infection.

The initial symptom of gum disease is usually some slight bleeding from around the teeth after they have been brushed; this is not always easy to identify because it does not normally come with any discomfort or soreness of the tissue, which means that the condition can be overlooked for some time before treatment is provided. See more symptoms.

Blood around the gums

If you do notice that there is some blood around the gums or in the sink after you have rinsed your mouth out there is no need to panic; however, it is a good idea to report this kind of symptom to your dentist before long – if there is infection present it will respond better to early treatment and it may be eradicated completely.

Without proper attention and treatment, gum disease can develop into a disease known as periodontitis.

If you are faced with this serious issue, we recommend booking an appointment with The Surrey-based Gentle Dental Implant and Cosmetic Centre. This dental practice has won numerous awards such as ‘Periodontal Practice of the Year’ from 2017 Global Excellence Awards, so you know are getting the best treatment possible. For more information about their specialist periodontist team, click here.

One way to make sure that problems with infection or decay don’t develop without you realising is to maintain regular contact with your dentist; experts recommend getting your teeth checked at least once a year. Why is it so important?

This will give your dentist plenty of time to treat problem symptoms if they do arise and long-term problems can be avoided – it also means that you will be able to voice any concerns that you might have about your dental health.

If you decide that it might be helpful to get regular check-ups you will have to register with a particular surgery; this is so that all your information is in the system when you come to make an appointment.

If you think you might have gum disease and you would like to get it treated soon you should make an appointment with a specialist.

Health Fact Sheets

Stay Informed

At Health & Therapy Clinic Online, we like to provide our readers with as much information as possible about keeping body and mind healthy.

Check out our fact sheets below to find out more about a range of vital topics.

Fact sheets:

What is allergy?

What is an Allergen?

We are interested in all areas of health. Often illness can be a direct reaction to something in the environment or something we eat or come into contact with.

Oral health:

The health of our teeth and gums is vital not only to have a great looking smile but to keep our bodies healthy. Click here to see gum disease facts in London.

Gum disease is a common occurrence in adults and can be managed with a daily hygiene routine.

However, if you have concerns about the health of your teeth or gums, it’s best to get checked by a dental expert. View your Hertfordshire treatment options here.

Vitamin D:

Vitamin D lowers blood pressure

A diet with sufficient vitamins helps the body to function properly. Get tested if you have concerns. See our list of local NHS services.


Type 2 Diabetes latest. See how walking can help manage the disease.

Diabetes can affect the eyesight. Make sure to book regular checkups. Click here for more.

Spear Medical Bulletin:

Medical bulletin - Doctors have assisted some of our members with their allergies and sensitivities.
Moulds: One of our members has had a bad experience with mould causing illness.

First Aid

Find out what everyone should know about First Aid. Click here.


What is autism?

How a Physician Cured Her Son of autism?


The Big Debate “ Should we fluoridate our water supplies?

The children of some of our members have experienced white spots on their teeth.


Mercury could soon be banned by EU - amalgam fillings

Some of our members have had their amalgam fillings removed because of health concerns.

Are there any topics you’d like us to cover? Let us know here


Cosmetic Procedures to Boost Self Esteem


The goal of the British cosmetic industry is to improve a person’s appearance and, thus, self-esteem by changing the way she or he looks. These procedures can be performed on any part of the face and body.

Look younger & firmer with these cosmetic treatments:

Straight Teeth with Invisalign

• Botox™

• Thread Face Lift

• Lip Filler

• Dermal Fillers

• Hydrafacial

• Tanning

• Teeth Whitening

• Obagi Zo Range

• Dermaroller and Dermapen

• Cheek Lift

Chemical Peel

• Chin Sculpting

Eyebrow Tattooing

• Face-lift

• Facial Contouring

• Facial Fillers

• Facial Wrinkles

• Fraxel Laser Resurfacing

• Laser Resurfacing

• Neck Lift

• Skin Problems (Blemishes, Scar Acne)

• Wrinkle Treatment

Why it’s done

Before making an appointment to see a cosmetic nurse, people should consider their motives for wanting to change how they look. Because cosmetic alterations can bring lasting and dramatic changes to the outside appearance, it is important to understand how these changes may affect people on the inside.

Many physical characteristics can be successfully changed with the help of our highly qualified cosmetic nurses; others cannot. Good candidates for cosmetic help:

• Be realistic about your results.

• Understand the medical risks, physical effects during healing, how any procedure will affect them personally and professionally, what lifestyle changes may accompany the recovery period, and the expenses involved.

• Have discussed their goals of their treatment with our nurse and resolved any questions.


All cosmetic procedures, carry risk.

A meeting with the nurse will include a discussion of these risks and others related to the patient’s health history.

Possible complications for any cosmetic procedure include:

• Complications related to anesthesia

• Infection at the incision site, which may worsen scarring and require additional surgery

• Fluid buildup under the skin

• Mild bleeding, which may require another surgical procedure, or bleeding significant enough to require a transfusion

• Obvious scarring or skin breakdown, which occurs when healing skin separates from healthy skin and must be removed surgically

• Numbness and tingling from nerve damage, which may be permanent

Why Choose Us?

When considering a cosmetic procedure, whether surgical or non-surgical, look for an expert with specialised training or is affiliated with a major medical centre, such as The British Cosmetic Clinic. Ask your doctor or skin care specialist about credentials and training. All patients seeking treatments meet with a British Beauty Clinic cosmetic Nurse to discuss the procedure and help determine what level of treatment is right for them.  

Is this procedure covered by the NHS?

Like most cosmetic procedures this procedure is not covered by the NHS. For questions about pricing and payment, please call The Perfect Practices One of our British Beauty Clinic Cosmetic Nurses would be happy to answer any questions you might have.

This information is not intended to replace the medical advice of your doctor. Please consult your doctor for advice about a specific medical condition.

Scared Of The Dentist? Try Hypnotherapy

Why Am I Scared Of The Dentist?

Many people dread going to the dentist and often, the actual dentist has done nothing wrong and is very pleasant; so why are so many people scared of going to the dentist and what can be done to ease nerves and make going to the dentist less stressful?

What can be done to help patients who are scared of going to the dentist?

Nowadays, there are various techniques and treatments available for phobia and anxious patients, including:

  • sedation
  • hypnotherapy
  • distraction techniques, such as playing music and watching films
  • laser treatment
  • aromatherapy and relaxation techniques
  • painless injections

If you do suffer from anxiety when faced with a trip to the dentist, talk to your dentist; your dentist will be happy to reassure you and if they are aware that you are struggling, they can alter their approach to make your feel calmer and reassured.

The Perfect Practices are an elite group of private dental studios which specialise in treating nervous and phobic patients.

They use the patented NuCalm system as well designing their practices to be relaxing and soothing.

They provide a range of dental services, including cosmetic dentistry, in London and the Home Counties. Click here to book a consultation.

More tips for dealing with dental phobia.

Causes of dental anxiety

There are many different reasons why people may be afraid of going to the dentist. In the majority of cases, it is not the actual dentist that people are afraid of, but rather, the dental procedure or the sights and sounds of the dental practice.

Common causes of dental phobia include:

  1. A fear of pain: most people experience anxiety when they think they are going to be subjected to pain and this is a natural human instinct; however, some people suffer from very severe anxiety and this fear can consume them and make them experience symptoms such as feeling very nervous, sick and restless and developing butterflies in their tummy and a very fast heart rate.
  2. A fear of needles and injections: nobody enjoys injections, but some people have a deep-seated fear of needles and this can put them off going to the dentist.
  3. Negative experiences in the past: if you have a bad experience anywhere, this can put you off and the dental practice is no different. If you’ve had treatment that left you in pain in the past or you came across a dentist you didn’t particularly like, this can make you nervous about having treatment in the future.
  4. A fear of the dental drill: nothing makes you feel more nervous than the whirring sound of the dreaded dental drill when you are in the waiting room of a dental surgery. The drill is synonymous with feelings of pain and discomfort, but there are alternative treatments available, such as laser treatment.
  5. Embarrassment: some people feel anxious about going to the dentist because they are embarrassed about their oral health, the look of their teeth or having issues, such as staining or bad breath. If this is the case, it is worth remembering that dentists are trained to treat patients with oral diseases and it is highly likely that they will have seen many patients with the same issues in the past. London has become a hub of dental phobia treatment experts and finding dental help in W1 and other areas is easier than ever before.
  6. Fear of bad news: one reason some people dread going to the dentist is being told bad news. When you go to the dentist it is a massive relief to be told that everything is okay and you don’t have to come back for another check-up for 6 months, but if something is wrong and you need further treatment, this can be scary, especially for patients who suffer from dental phobia or severe anxiety.

The best way to prevent oral disease is to stick to a good oral hygiene routine and see your dentist regularly.



Walking your way to fitness and health

Walking your way to fitness and health

I’ve always enjoyed walking. As I kid I had to walk to school, a round trip of about three miles. I also had a newspaper delivery round and completed numerous hikes with the Scouts. My main mode of transport up to the age of 18 was, as my Gran called walking, Shank’s pony. If I wanted to go anywhere, I had to walk. As a young adult I did my fair share of backpacking which I also enjoyed immensely. Fast forward a couple of years and I was getting paid to hike well sort of! With nothing more than a rucksack, I learnt to live out of doors for weeks on endhow much simpler life was then!

Like many of you, my walking was reduced to traipsing from the car park to the gym or pushing a shopping trolley around Tesco’s supermarket.  Whereas I once wore out walking boots in a matter of months, I was now able to make a pair of boots last five years or more! I actually fell into the trap of looking for ways to walk lessparking as close as I could to my destination, not walking for pleasure and simply not making the effort to get out on my own two feet.

Then along came Bella, or Bella Wooferton to give her full name. Bella is a Great Dane that was abandoned in a nearby town. I adopted her and suddenly life changed. Now, my day starts and ends with a 45 to 60 minute walk and maybe a 15 to 30 minute walk at midday. We walk an average of 4 miles an hour so I estimate I walk about 30 miles a week, irrespective of the weather. Needless to say, at first this was a bit of a shock to my system but I soon realised that there were numerous benefits to regular walking that I had all but forgotten. These include:

  • Increased calorie output – not a lot but enough that I am a little leaner than I was 6 months ago. I have also reduced the amount of cardio I do and now have more time to focus on strength training
  • My joints ache less – my twice-daily walks are keeping my knees and hips more mobile – it’s like I get two warm ups a day
  • I am more creative – I have some great ideas when I’m out walking and many of my recent articles have come to me when I’ve been out on the hills
  • I get to unplug from technology – no phone, no internet, no distractions! I’m off the grid for an hour or two a day and that helps reduce stress
  • My posture is much improved – I spend a lot of my day sat in front of a PC writing and my regular walks have helped offset the time I spend stooped over my keyboard. My lower back is much less stiff – something I have really noticed when squatting and deadlifting
  • I have more energy – maybe it’s the reduction in cardio or it might be the increased oxygenated blood flow to my brain but I’m certainly more energetic after a walk
  • I recover better from workouts – even though I am training just as hard if not harder than ever, I’m suffering less DOMS. I put this down to increased blood flow and moving about more on a regular basis. My muscles don’t get chance to stiffen up

All in all, walking a couple of times a day had added a lot of my physical and mental wellbeing. Of course, some mornings I would rather stay in bed and sometimes it’s a bit of a rush to walk Bella, eat breakfast, get to the gym, train, and then be ready for my first appointment of the day but the payoff is well worth the investment.

I don’t expect you all to rush out and get a dog after reading this, although if you do I highly recommend Great Danes, but I’d like you to try and make a conscious effort to walk more. Don’t think of it as exercise but as medicine. Big medicine! Did you know that our hunter/gatherer ancestors walked an average of 15 miles a day? And populations that walk a lot suffer less insidious diseases such as CHD, hypertension and diabetes. We are built to walk far and often and, I believe, regular walking can be life enhancing. So, here is my challenge to you: Walk for 30 minutes every day for the next 30 days. I’m betting you’ll feel and maybe even look better one month from now. You may have to get up 30 minutes earlier or watch a few minutes less TV but that is a small investment.

One caveat to my challenge – do not hop on a treadmill and do your walking indoors. This challenge is not about doing more hamster cardio. Get out and experience your local area. Enjoy the sights and sounds and explore. Walking is like meditation on the move and it could be just what your fitness routine is missing.

Sign up for more fitness newsletters from ultra-FIT via our website.

NHS Clinics & Services in your area

Clinics & Services

County Clinics provide all core General Medical Services - these include minor surgery, contraception, maternity, child health surveillance and immunisation. Clinics provide routine care of diabetes, asthma, high blood pressure, flu clinics for the over 65’s and at risk annually.

Below is a list of the NHS clinics and services available at the Practice.

Antenatal Clinics are run by the Community Midwife who will monitor your health through pregnancy and the development of your unborn baby. Appointments for the Clinic should be made through reception.

Asthma checks and checks for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are carried out by our Practice Nurses, who have undergone specialist training and can provide monitoring of your condition, advice on inhaler technique and new medications.

The practice has installed a Blood Pressure Monitor in the waiting room which patients can use to check their blood pressure. Full instructions on how to use the monitor are displayed, but if you experience any problems please speak to one of the Receptionists. Please note the Receptionists cannot comment on blood pressure readings. if you have any concerns regarding your blood pressure please make an appointment to see your Doctor.

It is very important for women between 25 and 49 to have a cervical smear test every three years and for women between 50 and 64 to have a cervical smear every five years, for which they will receive a recall letter. The test is carried out by the Practice Nurse.

Childhood vaccinations are important as these vaccinations protect children from serious illness. Your child will be invited by post to attend for vaccination. If you have any concerns about the safety of vaccination, please discuss with the Health Visitor, Practice Nurse or one of the Doctors.

Attention all under 25’s. It is Practice Policy to now offer Chlamydia tests to all patients between 16 and 25. The test pack is available for you to collect on the Reception desk.

We are pleased to announce we can now test for Gonorrhoea when we will be able to send you two results. You don’t have to do anything new – you will automatically be screened for Gonorrhoea when we receive your sample.You will be contacted within 2 weeks if you are positive for either STIs.

YOUNG PEOPLES’ DROP IN CLINIC- Is now open to all young people under 25

STI CHECKS- both self-taken and more comprehensive with free treatment

CONTRACEPTION - (including emergency contraception); PREGNANCY TESTING


REFERRAL TO SPECIALIST SERVICES - including counselling, termination of pregnancy etc.

The service is CONFIDENTIAL, and is part of the C-Card Scheme (free condoms given)

Coronary heart disease and stroke clinics are run by our practice nurses. The clinic provides monitoring of your condition and medication, advice on risk factors and tries to help you to minimise the risk of future problems.

Diabetic checks are carried out by the Practice Nurses, who assess all aspects of your diabetic care.

Contraceptive services and advice are available from all of our Doctors and Practice Nurses.

These clinics are run prior to the flu season annually by our Practice Nurses. Vaccination against seasonal flu is recommended for the over 65’s or those in at risk groups. This includes anyone over 6 months of age with chest problems, with chronic heart, kidney and liver disease, the immuno-suppressed, diabetics, preganant women and carers.

Leg ulcers are monitored and treated by our Practice Nurses.

Some minor surgical procedures are carried out in the practice and a cryotherapy clinic for freezing skin lesions that do not need surgical removal, is available. Your doctor will refer you to these clinics if it is appropriate.

A Travel Clinic is held on by our Practice Nurses, who can offer a full range of foreign travel immunisations, malaria prevention and advice. Try to make your first appointment about eight weeks before you travel in case a course of vaccinations is necessary. There is a charge for some of the vaccinations and we will be happy to advise you on these.

Healthy Snack Ideas

Simple and delicious Oatcakes

This simple recipe is easy and makes a great healthy snack, breakfast on the go or post-workout treat!

Basic Ingredients

200 grams porridge oats
50 grams of sugar (any type will work/use less if you prefer)
3 whole eggs
1/2 teaspoon vanilla essence
1 teaspoon of baking powder



Optional extras Personalise your oatcakes by adding any of the following
Chopped nuts
Chocolate chips
Chopped apricots
Chopped dried apple rings


Put the porridge oats into a blender and whizz them up into a rough flour. Add the sugar, the eggs, vanilla essence and the baking powder and blend again until you have a batter-like consistency.

Add your choice of optional extra ingredients and by hand, stir them into your mixture.

Spoon the mixture out onto a greaseproof paper covered baking tray using a table spoon allowing for the mixture to spread slightly. You should get 9-12 portions per batch of mixture.

Place in a pre-heated oven set to 200 degrees and bake for 10-12 minutes and then leave to cool on a cooling rack before eating.

I made sultana, almond and honey ones yesterday and they were great!

Train in Hypnosis For Childbirth

Hypnosis For Childbirth UK / USA

Hypnosis for childbirth UK provides training for qualified hypnotherapists who want to learn hypnosis for childbirth. These teaching courses have been established in response to the increasing demand for the interesting speciality of childbirthing using hypnosis.

The knowledge you will obtain, will reflect in your professional approach, and how to assist clients and

their partners during this important time in their life.

Hypnosis for Childbirth UK / USA

Some Advantages of using

hypnosis during childbirth

Safer, more effective method

Reduces labour time

Less analgesic drug required (if any)

A less exhaustive mother after birth

A much less stressed baby

A calmer birthing experience

This is NOT a distance learning course.

Next courses

Total cost of the day course is 185. A 40 non returnable deposit is required one month prior to the course

The venue is held at The Hypnotherapy Clinic,

Student numbers are kept to 3 or 4 per course.

Refreshments and food provided in the cost.

For those wishing to know more about childbirthing or psychological problems

during pregnancy

This course is for qualified hypnotherapists.

Basic anatomy & physiology during pregnancy.

Natural design to give birth

The stages of labour.

Problems that can occur during pregnancy.

Scans & Amniocentesis

Problems and reducing interventions during childbirth. Epidurals, analgesics, Entonox, TENS, ventouse extraction,

Caesarean section.

Initial Consultation. History taking, previous birth trauma, PTSD, Hypertension, Pre-Eclampsia.

�Safe Place’.

Post Hypnotic Suggestions.

Teaching self hypnosis.

Techniques for reducing fear.

Perceptions of pain and control techniques.

Bonding with her baby.

Making audio tapes for relaxation, pre-childbirth, and childbirth. Use of audio subliminal’s.

Course contents will be provided in a comprehensive file or on an interactive CD.

A Master Subliminal CD will also be provided.


Goal Setting for Health and Wellbeing

The Seven Stages of Goal Setting

Goal setting is an important part of health and fitness and can help keep you motivated. Exercising without a goal is like going on a journey without a map–you don’t know where you are going or why. If you are trying to lose weight, get fitter, improve your health or build muscle, setting a goal will make your actions more focused and improve your exercise adherence. When setting goals, use the acronym SMARTER, which stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Recorded, Time bound, Enjoyable and Revisited, to make your goals more structured.

What exactly do you want to achieve? Rather than generic goals such as feeling fitter, having more energy, or losing weight, set goals which are specific. For example, if you want to lose weight what you would ideally like to weigh. A specific fitness goal could be a distance you want to be able to run or a weight you’d like to be able to lift. Specific goals will help you to focus you efforts.

Make your goals measureable. Fitness goals could be a distance you want to be able to run whereas a weight goal could be the number of pounds you’d like to lose. Health goals could include measures of blood pressure, cholesterol levels or blood glucose. Whatever your goal, try to apply a numerical value to it so you can measure your progress.

A non-runner setting the goal of running a marathon in 6 weeks time, whilst being specific and measureable, is not very realistic. Make sure that your goals are challenging but not impossible. Set yourself up for success by making sure your goals achievable. Enhance the achievability of your goals by trying to predict potential obstacles and devise methods to overcome them. For example, if you can’t make it to the gym what exercise can you do instead? If you forget to take your lunch to work, what healthy food can you purchase as a replacement?

Write you goals down. You don’t have to share them but doing so can aid in motivation. Keep referring to your goals whenever your motivation starts to diminish to remind yourself what you are working towards. You may find it beneficial to stick your nutritional goals to your refrigerator or your exercise goals to your exercise bike. Taking before and after pictures can also be a motivational way to record your progress.

Time Bound
Set a date by which you would like to achieve your goal. By applying a deadline, you will be more focused. Working towards a goal without a definite deadline can reduce your commitment and motivation as there will be no urgency. However, make sure your timeframe is realistic and achievable.

Some sacrifice will be necessary in pursuit of your goals but if you find the process wholly unpleasant, your chances of success will be significantly reduced. For example if your new diet consists of foods you don’t enjoy, it’s unlikely you’ll stick with it for long.  Make sure you can enjoy the process and well as the end result.

Periodically revisit your goals, especially if they are long term. You may find you need to revise them to account for external factors you failed to consider initially. Think of this as fine-tuning which will increase your chances of success.

Next Step
Now you know what a SMARTER goal is, grab some paper and jot yours down. Then, look at your current training and eating and decide is your current routine taking you towards your goals or are you shooting arrows off target? Change your training and diet so they drive you towards your goals and not off in another direction. Start your new goal directed nutrition and exercise plan on Monday and enjoy the fact you are taking positive steps towards achieving the levels of fitness and health you have set for yourself!

Basic First Aid Advice

First Aid AdviceHealth Advice - Basic First Aid

Please read the valuable advice below on basic first aid. We have also included several short video clips from trusted sources such as St John Ambulance.

For more in depth help and further advice on dealing with more serious first aid emergencies we would recommend the St John Ambulance website and the NHS Choices website first aid section
Back Pain

Back pain causes 13 million working days to be lost in Britain each year. The spine is made of 24 fragile bones and associated cartilage and tendons, and supports the whole upper body weight, so it is unsurprising to find that it sometimes goes wrong. Most cases of back pain are self limiting and will get better with rest and time.

Contact your GP if the pain persists for more than a few days, or the pain cannot be controlled with stronger over the counter painkillers. If the pain was caused by misuse, such as lifting a heavy load, it is advisable to take things easy and avoid activities and postures that put further stress on the back. Paracetamol or ibuprofen are helpful in controlling the pain and in reducing inflammation.
Burns & Scalds

Apply clean, cold water to the whole burn area as soon as possible - seconds can count with burns. keep cold water running over the burn until pain subsides sufficiently - up to 15 minutes.

If the skin is unbroken or blistered then cover with a loose dry dressing. If the burn exceeds 3-5 inches (10-12 cm) in diameter or the skin is broken then consult your doctor or the local A & E Department as soon as possible. Treat the associated pain with a strong painkiller.

Insect Bites & Stings

Most insect bites and stings are harmless, some however will provoke a mild reaction to the bitten area that may lead to a rash and/or swelling. These are easily treated. Clean the area around the sting/bite with antiseptic solution & cotton wool. Remove sting if it is still present in the skin.

Note: Bee stings should be scraped away rather than ‘plucked’ in order to avoid squeezing the contents of the venom sac into the wound. Apply Hydrocortisone ointment or Calamine lotion to relieve itching & reduce any inflammation. An antihistamine tablet at a recommended dose can be useful in further reducing any allergic swelling, rash and itchiness. If you have a serious allergic reaction to an insect sting, e.g. rapid swelling or difficulty breathing, seek immediate medical advice and help.

Minor Cuts & Grazes

Clean the cut or grazed area with cotton wool and an antiseptic solution diluted in lukewarm water. Dab the area dry carefully and apply an antiseptic cream. Use a plaster to cover & protect the cut or grazed area. If the cut or graze should become infected seek medical advice as you may need a prescription.


Pinch the base of the nose together, sitting down with the head tilted forwards for 15 minutes or alternatively pack the bleeding nostril with soft tissue for the same time. This should stop the bleeding. If there is still fresh blood after 2 hours contact your GP.

If you are taking Warfarin and suffer a nosebleed contact your doctor immediately.


Elevate & rest the sprained joint and use ice or an alternative such as frozen peas wrapped in a cloth for around. 15 minutes. Apply a crepe bandage to the sprained joint, resting it until pain levels subside sufficiently. Sprained joints can be painful for periods of up to and beyond several days.

Follow the simple advice of RICE for sprains - Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation.


Treat sunburn as any other burn. Use Calamine lotion to cool the affected area & reduce discomfort. Paracetamol may also help reduce the pain. Try to avoid sunburn in the first instance by not staying out under a hot sun for long periods & using a high factor sun cream/block (at least factor 15 for babies & young children). Children are especially susceptible to sunburn, particularly fair-skinned and red-headed youngsters.

Over exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays and sunburn can greatly increase the chance of skin cancer, so cover up and use sunscreen.